Title

Immunological and Neurobiochemical Alterations Induced by Repeated Oral Exposure of Phenol in Mice

Document Type

Article

Journal/Book Title/Conference

European Journal of Pharmacology

Volume

228

Issue

2-3

Publisher

Elsevier

Publication Date

1992

First Page

107

Last Page

114

DOI

10.1016/0926-6917(92)90019-9

Abstract

Phenol, a major metabolite of benzene, is a potentially immunotoxic and neurotoxic substance of environmental significance. Male CD-1 mice were continuously exposed to 0, 4.7, 19.5, and 95.2 mg phenol/l in drinking water for 4 weeks. Various immune functions were evaluated and levels of selected neurotransmitters and metabolites measured in discrete brain regions. The doses of phenol did not produce any overt clinical signs of toxicity; peripheral red blood cell counts and hematocrits decreased. A dose of 95.2 mg/l suppressed the stimulation of cultured splenic lymphocytes by lipopolysaccharide, pokeweed mitogen, and phytohemagglutinin and the response in mixed lymphocyte cultures. The two high doses suppressed antibody production response to the T cell-dependent antigen (sheep erythrocytes), as determined by plaque-forming cells, and serum antibody levels. Mice treated with phenol had lower levels of neurotransmitters in several brain regions. In the hypothalamus, a major norepinephrine-containing compartment, the concentrations of norepinephrine significantly decreased by 29 and 40% in groups dosed with 19.5 and 95.2 mg/l, while dopamine concentrations decreased in the corpus striatum by 21, 26, and 35% at 4.7, 19.5 and 95.2 mg/l, respectively. Phenol also decreased 5-hydroxytryptamine in the hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, midbrain and corpus striatum. Levels of monoamine metabolites decreased in the hypothalamus (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), midbrain (vanillylmandelic acid), corpus striatum (vanillylmandelic acid and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid), cortex (vanillylmandelic acid), and cerebellum (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid).

Comments

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