Development, Chromosomal Composition, and Cell Allocation of Bovine Cloned Blastocyst Derived From Chemically Assisted Enucleation and Cultured in Conditioned Media
Molecular Reproduction and Development
Treatment of in vitro matured bovine oocytes with colcemid results in a membrane protrusion that contains maternal chromosomes, which can be easily removed by aspiration. Four experiments were designed to evaluate the overall and temporal effects of conditioned medium (CM) by bovine cumulus cells on development of nuclear transfer (NT) bovine embryos and to examine the chromosomal composition and allocation of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) of the subsequent blastocysts. The nuclear transfer embryos were cultured in various CR1aa media conditioned by preculture with bovine cumulus cells. Development to the blastocyst stage in BSA-containing CM (BCM) and serum-containing CM (SCM) were similar to co-culture group (24-30%). The 24 hr-conditioned BCM yielded higher blastocyst development than 48 and 72 hr-conditioned BCM. Temporary exposure of embryos to BCM and SCM followed by CR1aa was also studied. Morula and blastocyst development were not different among the groups cultured in BCM for 72, 96, and 168 hr, but were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than groups exposed to BCM for 24 and 48 hr, respectively. Blastocyst development in SCM for 24 hr (29%), 96 hr (25%), and 168 hr (27%) were much higher (P < 0.05) than those in SCM for 48 hr (12%) and 72 hr (10%). The analyses of chromosomal composition of the resulting blastocysts indicate approximately 80% of the blastocysts cultured in CR1aa with co-culture or groups initially exposed to BCM for 24 hr followed by culture in CR1aa were diploid. However, the incidence of diploidy were only 36-60% in SCM-cultured groups and groups cultured in BCM beyond 48 hr. Conditioned media did not affect the allocation of ICM and TE in the blastocyst. No difference was found in the ratio of inner cell mass to total cells in co-culture, BCM or SCM groups (0.424, 0.441, and 0.473, respectively). In conclusion, bovine cumulus cell-CM and CR1aa with co-culture supported comparable development and blastocyst ICM:total cell ratio of bovine NT embryos. However, CM affected the blastocyst chromosomal composition and induced higher mixploidy.
Li, G-P., Bunch, T.D., White, K.L., Aston, K.I., Meerdo, L.N., B.J. Pate and B.R. Sessions 2004. Development, Chromosomal Composition, and Cell Allocation of Bovine Cloned Blastocyst Derived From Chemically Assisted Enucleation and Cultured in Conditioned Media Mole. Reprod. Devel. 68: 189-197.