Mixed Messages Across Multiple Trophic Levels: The Ecology of Bark Beetle Chemical Communication Systems
Chemical, physiological and behavioral components of pheromone communication have been described for a number of bark beetle species, yet our understanding of how these signals function under natural conditions remains relatively limited. Development of ecologically based models is complicated by the multiple functions and sources of variability inherent in bark beetle semiochemistry. This discussion addresses four ecological issues of chemical signaling in bark beetles: the effects of aggregation on individual fitness, the possibility of cheating, how plants can defend themselves against herbivores that employ aggregation pheromones, and the implications of variability in chemical communication systems to predator avoidance.
Raffa, K. (2001). Mixed messages across multiple trophic levels: the ecology of bark beetle chemical communication systems. Chemoecology, 11(2): 49-65.