Bark beetle outbreaks have resulted in the loss of hundreds of thousands of conifers on approximately 30 million hectares of forested lands in western North America during the last decade. Many forests remain susceptible to bark beetle infestation and will continue to experience high levels of conifer mortality until suitable host trees are depleted, or natural factors cause populations to collapse. Stand conditions and drought, combined with warming temperatures, have contributed to the severity of these outbreaks, particularly in high-elevation forests.

Conventional wisdom suggests that large scale bark beetle outbreaks alter fuel complexes resulting in an increased potential for severe fires. Conversely, fires damage trees that may predispose them to bark beetle attack. In reality there is little specific quantified data supporting these assertions, and until recently, relationships between fire and western bark beetles in forests of North America have not been extensively studied. The magnitude of recent outbreaks and large wildfires has resulted in a flurry of research attempting to quantify bark beetle/fire/fuel interactions.
 
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1984

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BEHAVE : Fire Behavior Prediction and Fuel Modeling System -- FUEL Subsystem, Robert E. Burgan and Richard C. Rothermel

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The Seen and Unseen World of the Fallen Tree, Chris Maser and James M. Trappe

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Coniferous Forest Habitat Types of Northern Utah, Ronald L. Mauk and Jan A. Henderson

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MCH pheromone for preventing Douglas-fir beetle infestation in windthrown trees, M. D. McGregor, M. M. Furniss, R. D. Oaks, K. E. Gibson, and H. E. Meyer; Journal of Forestry

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Abundance of the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis, and the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, following tree defoliation by the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata, L. C. Wright, A. A. Berryman, and B. E. Wickman; The Canadian Entomologist

1983

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The "Unnatural Fuel Buildup" Issue, James K. Brown; Proceedings - Symposium and Workshop on Wilderness Fire

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Natural product defensive chemistry of Douglas- fir, Western Spruce Budworm success and forest management practices, R. G. Cates, R. Redak, and C. B. Henderson; Journal of Applied Entomology

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Harvesting Strategies for Management of Mountain Pine Beetle Infestations in Lodgepole Pine : Preliminary Evaluation, East Long Creek Demonstration Area, Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming, Walter E. Cole, Donn B. Cahill, and Gene D. Lessard

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Fire Influences in Abies-Dominated Forests, V V. Furyaev, Ross W. Wein, and David A. MacLean; The Role of Fire in Northern Circumpolar Ecosystems

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The Role of Host Plant Resistance in the Colonization Behavior and Ecology of Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), K F. Raffa and A A. Berryman; Ecological Monographs

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How to Predict the Spread and Intensity of Forest and Range Fires, Richard C. Rothermel

1982

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The mountain pine beetle-identification, biology, causes of outbreaks, and entomological research needs, G. D. Amman; Proc. of the Joint Canada / USA Workshop on Mountain Pine Beetle Related Problems in Western North America

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Aids to Determining Fuel Models for Estimating Fire Behavior, Hal E. Anderson

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Fuel and vegetation succession in response to mountain pine beetle epidemics in northwestern Montana - a thesis, Charles D. Armour; University of Idaho, M.S. Thesis, Moscow, ID

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Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in Rocky Mountain Lodgepole Pine Forests, A A. Berryman; Journal of Forestry

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Bulk densities of nonuniform surface fuels and their application to fire modeling, J. K. Brown; Forest Science

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Handbook for inventorying surface fuels and biomass in the Interior West, J. K. Brown, R. D. Oberheu, and C. M. Johnston; USDA Forest Service

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Mass, Nutrient Content, and Decay Rate of Dead Boles in Rain Forests of Olympic National Park, Robin L. Graham and Kermit Cromack Jr.; Canadian Journal of Forest Research

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Factors Influencing Understory Seedling Establishment of Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii) and Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in Southeast Wyoming, Alan K. Knapp and William K. Smith; Canadian Journal of Botany

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Herbage production under ponderosa pine killed by the mountain pine beetle in Colorado, W. F. McCambridge, M. J. Morris, and C. B. Edminster

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Fire and Landscape Diversity in Subalpine Forests of Yellowstone National Park, William H. Romme; Ecological Monographs

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Generalized ecology and life cycles of bark beetles, R W. Stark; Pages 21-45 in JB Mitton & KB Sturgeon (eds) Bark Beetles in North American Conifers: A System for the Study of Evolutionary Biology, University of Texas Press, Austin

1981

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Fire in Ecosystem Distribution and Structure : Western Forests and Scrublands, Bruce M. Kilgore; Proceedings of the Conference: Fire Regimes and Ecosystem Properties

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Spruce Beetles in Blowdown, J M. Schmid

1980

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Forest Fire History in the Northern Rockies, Stephen F. Arno; Jouranl of Forestry