Bark beetle outbreaks have resulted in the loss of hundreds of thousands of conifers on approximately 30 million hectares of forested lands in western North America during the last decade. Many forests remain susceptible to bark beetle infestation and will continue to experience high levels of conifer mortality until suitable host trees are depleted, or natural factors cause populations to collapse. Stand conditions and drought, combined with warming temperatures, have contributed to the severity of these outbreaks, particularly in high-elevation forests.

Conventional wisdom suggests that large scale bark beetle outbreaks alter fuel complexes resulting in an increased potential for severe fires. Conversely, fires damage trees that may predispose them to bark beetle attack. In reality there is little specific quantified data supporting these assertions, and until recently, relationships between fire and western bark beetles in forests of North America have not been extensively studied. The magnitude of recent outbreaks and large wildfires has resulted in a flurry of research attempting to quantify bark beetle/fire/fuel interactions.
 
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1988

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Susceptibility of Lodgepole Pine to Infestation by Mountain Pine Beetle Following Partial Cutting of Stands, Gene D. Amman, Mark D. McGregor, Richard F. Schmitz, and Robert D. Oakes; Canadian Journal of Forest Research

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Patterns of Community Dynamics in Colorado Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fire Forests, Gregory H. Aplet, Richard D. Laven, and Frederick W. Smith; Ecology

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Douglas-Fir Beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, Coleoptera : Scolytidae) Brood Production on Douglas-Fir Defoliated by Western Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, Lepidoptera : Tortricidae) in Logan Canyon, Utah, S E. Fredricks and M J. Jenkins; Great Basin Naturalist

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Predicting Postfire Mortality of Seven Western Conifers, Kevin C. Ryan and Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Canadian Journal of Forest Research

Mountain pine beetle : biology overview, Lee Safranyik; Pages 9-12 in GD Amman (ed) Proceedings - Symposium on the Management of Lodgepole Pine to Minimize Losses to the Mountain Pine Beetle, Kalispell, MT, July 12-14, 1998. UDSA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden UT. General Technical Report INT-262

1987

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Ecology, Silviculture, and Management of the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir Type in the Central and Southern Rocky Mountains, Robert R. Alexander

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Resistance of Conifers to Bark Beetle Attack : Searching for General Relationships, Erik Christiansen, Richard H. Warning, and Alan A. Berryman; Forest Ecology and Management

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Parasites, Lightning, and the Vegetation Mosaic in Wilderness Landscapes, Dennis H. Knight

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Role of Drought in Outbreaks of Plant-Eating Insects, William J. Mattson and Robert A. Haack; BioScience

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Partial Cutting Lodgepole Pine Stands to Reduce Losses to the Mountain Pine Beetle, Mark D. McGregor, Gene D. Amman, Richard F. Schmitz, and Robert D. Oakes; Canadian Journal of Forest Research

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Fire Potential in the Spruce Budworm-Damaged Forests of Ontario, B J. Stocks; The Forestry Chronicle

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Site and Stand Characterists, N. William Wulf and Rex G. Cates; USDA Forest Service, Technical Bulletin

1986

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BEHAVE : Fire Behavior Prediction and Fuel Modeling System - BURN Subsystem, Part 1, Patricia L. Andrews

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Surface Fuel Loadings and Prediced Fire Behavior for Vegetation Types in the Northern Rocky Mountains, James K. Brown and Collin D. Bevins

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Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in the Rocky Mountains: Effects on Fuels and Fire in Lodgepole Pine Forest (Abstract), W H. Romme, D H. Knight, and J Fedders; Program of the 71st Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America

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Age and Size Structure of Subalpine Forests in the Colorado Front Range, Thomas T. Veblen; Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club

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Treefalls and the Coexistence of Conifers in Subalpine Forests of the Central Rockies, Thomas T. Veblen; Ecology

1985

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Moisture and Fine Forest Fuel Response, H E. Anderson; Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology

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Influence of Fires, Fungi and Mountain Pine Beetles on Development of a Lodgepole Pine Forest in South-Central Oregon, R I. Gara, W R. Littke, J K. Agee, D R. Geiszler, J D. Stuart, and C H. Driver; Lodgepole Pine : The Species and Its Management Symposium Proceedings

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Spruce Beetles Attack Slowly Growing Spruce, John S. Hard; Forest Science

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Role of Fire in Lodgepole Pine Forests, James E. Lotan, James K. Brown, and Leon F. Neuenschwander; Lodgepole Pine : The Species and Its Management Symposium Proceedings

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Integrating Management Strategies for the Mountain Pine Beetle with Multiple-Resource Management of Lodgepole Pine Forests, Mark D. McGregor and Dennis M. Cole

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Evaluating Prescribed Fires, Kevin C. Ryan and Nonan V. Noste; Proceedings - Symposium and Workshop on Wilderness Fire

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Demographic Aspects of Coexistence in Engelmann Spruce and Subalpine Fir, Kathleen L. Shea; American Journal of Botany

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Factors Influencing Generation Times of Spruce Beetles in Alaska, Richard A. Werner and Edward H. Holsten; Canadian Journal of Forest Research