Bark beetle outbreaks have resulted in the loss of hundreds of thousands of conifers on approximately 30 million hectares of forested lands in western North America during the last decade. Many forests remain susceptible to bark beetle infestation and will continue to experience high levels of conifer mortality until suitable host trees are depleted, or natural factors cause populations to collapse. Stand conditions and drought, combined with warming temperatures, have contributed to the severity of these outbreaks, particularly in high-elevation forests.

Conventional wisdom suggests that large scale bark beetle outbreaks alter fuel complexes resulting in an increased potential for severe fires. Conversely, fires damage trees that may predispose them to bark beetle attack. In reality there is little specific quantified data supporting these assertions, and until recently, relationships between fire and western bark beetles in forests of North America have not been extensively studied. The magnitude of recent outbreaks and large wildfires has resulted in a flurry of research attempting to quantify bark beetle/fire/fuel interactions.
 
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1996

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Fire-Silviculture Relationships in Sierra Forests, C. Phillip Weatherspoon; Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final Report to Congress

1995

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Long-term response of disturbance landscapes to human intervention and global change., W. L. Baker; Landscape Ecology

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Relative Importance of Fuels and Weather on Fire Behavior in Subalpine Forests, W C. Bessie and E A. Johnson; Ecology

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Forest Health : Moving Beyond Rhetoric to Restore Health Landscapes in the Inland Northwest, Dominick A. DellaSala, David M. Olson, Sara E. Barth, Saundra L. Crane, and Steve A. Primm; Wildlife Society Bulletin

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Changes Over Time in Fuel-Loading Associated with Spruce Beetle-Impacted Stands of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, Bethany Schulz

1994

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Post settlement changes in natural fire regimes and forest structure: ecological restoration of old-growth ponderosa pine forests, W. W. Covington and M. M. Moore; Journal of Sustainable Forestry

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Role of Disturbance, Topography, and Forest Structure in the Development of a Montane Forest Landscape, Keith S. Hadley; Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club

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Blue-stain fungi and their transport structures on the Douglas-fir beetle., D. Lewinsohn, E. Lewinsohn, C. L. Bertagnolli, and A. D. Patridge; Canadian Journal of Forest Research

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Interactions Between Fire-Injured Trees and Insects in the Greater Yellowstone Area, Kevin C. Ryan and Gene D. Amman; Plants and their Environments : Proceedings of the First Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

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An industry perspective on fire control, Jim Schott; Journal of Forestry 92(11):33

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Effects of Fire on Landscape Heterogeneity in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Monica G. Turner, William W. Hargrove, Robert H. Gardner, and William H. Romme; Journal of Vegetation Science

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Disturbance Regime and Disturbance Interactions in a Rocky Mountain Subalpine Forest, Thomas T. Veblen, Keith S. Hadley, Elizabeth M. Nel, Thomas Kitzberger, Marion Reid, and Ricardo Villalba; Journal of Ecology

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Biological Evaluation of Tree Survivorship within the Lowman Fire Boundary, 1989-1993, Julie C. Weatherby, Phil Mocettini, and Brian R. Gardner

1993

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Critical Assessment of Risk Classification Systems for the Mountain Pine Beetle, B J. Bentz, G D. Amman, and J A. Logan; Forest Ecology and Management

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Influence of dwarf mistletoe and western spruce budworm on growth and mortality of Douglas-Fir in unmanaged stands, G. M. Filip, J. J. Colbert, P. Hessburg, and K. P. Hosman; Forest Science

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Effects of Pathogens and Bark Beetles on Forests, D J. Goheen and E M. Hansen

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Stand Response to Western Spruce Budworm and Douglas-Fir Bark Beetle Outbreaks, Colorado Front Range, Keith S. Hadley and Thomas T. Veblen; Canadian Journal of Forest Research

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Time to Ignition - Temperature - Moisture Relationship for Branches of Three Western Conifers, Gavriil Xanthopoulos and Ronald H. Wakimoto; Canadian Journal of Forest Research

1992

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Fire Ecology of Forests and Woodlands in Utah, Anne F. Bradley, Nonan V. Noste, and William C. Fischer

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Douglas-Fir Beetle : Dealing with an Epidemic, Steve Patterson; Getting to the Future Through Silviculture - Workshop Proceedings

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Fuel Moisture, Forest Type, and Lightning-Caused Fire in Yellowstone National Park, Roy A. Renkin and Don G. Despain; Canadian Journal of Forest Research

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Dendroctonus Beetles and Old-Growth Forests in the Rockies, J M. Schmid and G D. Amman; Old-growth Forest in the Southwest and Rock Mountain Regions, Proceedings of a Workshop

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Decomposition of Fallen Trees: Effects of Initial Conditions and Heterotroph Colonization Rates, T D. Schowalter, B C. Caldwell, S E. Carpenter, R P. Griffiths, M E. Harmon, E R. Ingham, R G. Kelsey, J D. Lattin, and A R. Moldenke; Tropical Ecosystems : Ecology and Management

1991

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Bark Beetle-Fire Associations in the Greater Yellowstone Area, Gene D. Amman; Fire and the Environment : Ecological and Cultural Perspectives

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Insect Infestation of Fire-Injured Trees in the Greater Yellowstone Area, Gene D. Amman and Kevin C. Ryan