First- and Second- Year Survival of Containerized Engelmann Spruce in Relation to Initial Seedling Size
Canadian Jorunal of Forest Research
Drought during the first growing season following outplanting and damage by rodents and snow during the 2nd year were the principle causes of mortality in a test of containerized Engelmann spruce (Piceaengelmannii Parry) planting stock. Stem caliper at planting is an important indicator of 1st- and 2nd-year survival. The increased survival of seedlings with large initial caliper reflect improved root regeneration and decreased susceptibility to bending and breaking by snow.
Hines, F.D. and J.N. Long (1986). First and second year survival of containerized Engelmann spruce in relation to initial seedling size. Can. J. For. Res. 16(3):668-670.