To select optimum specimen preparation methods and to correctly interpret freeze-fracture/freezeetch micrographs of food systems a detailed knowledge of the individual steps of preparation -- i.e. chemical fixation of samples, their cryoprotective pretreatment, cryofixation, freeze-fracturing and -etching, and replication -- and of their influence on the appearance of different constituents, especially proteins and lipids, is necessary. Food systems show great variation in composition, structure and especially in their content of water -- e.g. molecular and colloidal solutions, oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions, gels suspensions, semi-solid systems such as cheese, dried systems such as milk powders -- thus requiring a careful variation of preparatory conditions.
"Aspects of Sample Preparation for Freeze-Fracture/Freeze-Etch Studies of Proteins and Lipids in Food Systems. A Review,"
2, Article 9.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/foodmicrostructure/vol1/iss2/9