Artefacts develop due to changes in the microstructure of the sample under study because of inappropriate preparatory steps and/or due to distortion of the images of properly prepared samples during operation of the microscope. Of a wide variety of possible artefacts. only those occurring mast frequently have been selected and ilustrated with micrographs. In milk powders, the most common artefacts are the recrystallization of lactose in a humid atmosphere, "1 ine" and "dark-area" charging artefacts, and electron beam damage. In moist milk products, artefacts may arise at any preparatory step, such as sampling, fixation, dehydration and critical-point drying or freezing and freezedrying, mounting, metal coating, and microscopical examination. Images of the same subjects with artefacts either present or reduced to a minimum are compared and measures to avoid the development of the artefacts are suggested.
"Artefacts in Conventional Scanning Electron Microscopy of Some Milk Products,"
2, Article 2.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/foodmicrostructure/vol3/iss2/2