Paneer was made from cow, buffalo, and mixed cow and buffalo milk by coagulation with citric acid at pH 5.5. All milk samples were heated to 90°C. Cow milk was coagulated at this temperature but buffalo and mixed milks were cooled to 70°C before coagulation. Differences in the composition and the treatments of the cow and buffalo milks were reflected in the composition and structure of the paneers. Electron microscopy revealed that raw paneer samples had a granular structure consisting of protein particles having a core-and-lining ultrastructure. Deep-frying in vegetable oil at 175'C for 4-5 min led to the compaction of the paneer structure and also the individual protein particles. Cooking of the fried paneers by boiling in salt water (1.5% NaCl) for 5 min resulted in partial restoration of the overall structure of the paneers and the ultrastructure of the protein particles. The restoration was most obvious in the paneer made from cow milk.
Kalab, Miloslav; Gupta, S. K.; Desai, H. K.; and Patil, G. R.
"Development of Microstructure in Raw, Fried, and Fried and Cooked Paneer Made From Buffalo, Cow, and Mixed Milks,"
1, Article 10.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/foodmicrostructure/vol7/iss1/10