A suite of silicic volcanic rocks is associated with the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal area in southwestern Utah. The volcanic sequence includes Tertiary rhyolite 8 m.y. old and obsidian, ash and rhyolite of Quaternary age. The Quaternary lavas are characterized by high silica content (76.5% SiO2) and total alkalies in excess of 9 percent. Obsidians commonly contain greater amounts of flourine than water. Two older flows (0.8 m.y.) can be distinguished from younger dome and pyroclastic material (approximately 0.5 m.y.) by subtle differences in their chemistry. The mineralogy of the rhyolites consists of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and small amounts of Fe-Ti oxides, biotite, hornblende and rare allanite. Fe-Ti oxide temperatures are 740-785 degrees Celsius for the flows and 635-665 degrees Celsius for the domes; two feldspar temperature give similar results. The phase relationships of bulk rock, glass and feldspar compositions demonstrate that the younger Quaternary rhyolites could have been derived from the earlier magma type, represented by the obsidian flows, by a process of crystal fractionation. The major phases which must fractionate are alkali feldspar, plagioclase and quartz with minor amounts of biotite, magnetite and ilmenite participating also. Trace element patterns support this scheme as well. The Tertiary lavas cannot be related to the Quaternary rhyolites and are thought to represent a separate event.
Evans, Jr., S. H.; Nash, W. P.; and University of Utah, Department of Geology and Geophysics, "Quaternary Rhyolite from the Mineral Mountains, Utah, U.S.A." (1978). All U.S. Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository). Paper 597.