Deer browsing prevented aspen regeneration in both uncut stands and small 1/20-hectare clearcuts, even though nearby large burns regenerated successfully. Size of the clearcut or burned area may be critical in determining success of aspen regeneration; areas less than about 2 hectares in size may adversely concentrate deer use. Shrub production was less under deer use and forb production was less under cattle use than on protected areas. More apsen suckers were produced in uncut stands where cattle grazed than in stands protected from grazing, suggesting a possible relationship between sucker initiation and reduced competition from the herbaceous understory. Removal of aspen cover changed herbaceous composition from forb to grass dominants and discouraged conifer invasion.
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, "Grindstone Flat and Big Flat Exclosures - A 41-Year Record of Changes in Clearcut Aspen Communities" (1977). Forestry. Paper 19.