Establishment and growth of seedlings 13 years after strip clearcutting was investigated on a lodgepole pine/bitterbrush habitat type in southwestern Montana. Ingress of new seedlings (all from open-coned lodgepole pine) on areas that had been heavily bulldozer scarified was considerably better than on areas without bulldozer scarification. Seed:seedling ratios (established seedlings) ranged from 625:1 to 2,160:1 on scarified sites, and from 1,876:1 to 6,480:1 on unscarified sites. Only 3 years out of 13 resulted in significant numbers of seedlings being established. Advanced regeneration released by logging was growing as rapidly as seedlings established following logging.
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, "Regeneration and Early Growth on Strip Clearcuts in Lodgepole Pine/Bitterbrush Habitat Type" (1977). Forestry. Paper 62.