Date of Award


Degree Type

Creative Project

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health, Physical Education, and Recreation

First Advisor

Dennis Dolny


The purpose of this study is to validate the accuracy of the regression models created by Greene et al. (2011) for the prediction of oxygen consumption for aquatic treadmill (ATM) exercise at different speeds and jet resistances.

Twenty-one healthy individuals completed this study. Prior to testing V02peak, height, weight, and body composition were measured. At least 48 hours following V02peak testing participants completed five three-minute submaximal trials in the ATM. Speed was self-selected between 53 and 201 m-min-I to represent light, moderate, and somewhat hard conditions. Water jet.,resistance was between 0-80%. ATM speed and jet resistance were randomized for the trials. Participants rested for three minutes between trials. Oxygen consumption (V02) was measured continuously during trials. Measured V02 was compared to predicted V02.

Out of 105 trials completed in the ATM, 90 resulted in a greater V02 than predicted by the Greene et al. (2011) equations. Mean and predicted V02 for all ATM trials differed by 3.6 ml - kg-I - min-I (27.7 ± 9.1 mI- kg-I - min-I vs 24.1 ± 7.2 ml - kg-I - min-I). Mean and predicted V02 for trials withjet resistance between 0-25% differed by 3.1 mI- kg-I - min-I ,(25.7 ± 7.8 vs 22.6 ± 6.8 ml - kg-I - min-I, respectively). Mean and predicted V02 for trials with 25-100% jet resistance differed by 3.8 ml- kg-I - min-I (28.5 ± 9.5 vs 24.7 ± 7.2 mI- kg-I - min-I, respectively). Paired (-test and generalized estimating equations (GEE) showed a significant correlation (p< .001) between predicted and measured V O2 for both equations. There was no significant correlation (p> 0.05) between V02, trial number, and BMI. Using percent-predicted value, the 0-25% equation underestimated V02 by 14% and the 25-100% equation underestimated V02 by 15%. The effect size for the 0-25 equation was .43, and the effect size for the 25-100 equation was .45.

Our findings demonstrate the Greene equations underestimate V02 by an average of3.6 ml • kg-1 • min-I. This value tends to be greater than reported for previously published land treadmill (TM) running equations. Rehabilitation specialists and performance coaches may want to consider this degree of precision when using these equations for their clients.


This work made publicly available electronically on November 5, 2012.