The Influence of Anger Expressions on Outcomes in Organizations
Negotiation and Conflict Management Research
Anger can lead to positive organizational outcomes. Anger is an important emotion in negotiations and organizations create situations that promote anger, yet little research has examined the conditions under which anger expressions can lead to positive outcomes in organizations. We analyzed 129 anger episodes across six organizations. In these episodes we link the form of anger expression, characteristics of the expresser, and the organizational norms surrounding anger expressions with the valence of individual, relationship, and organizational outcomes. We find that outcomes are better when anger expressions are of low intensity, expressed verbally rather than in a physical way, and expressed in settings where anger expressions are normatively appropriate. Compared to expressions of anger by men, expressions of anger by women are associated with less positive organizational outcomes.
Gibson, D., Schweitzer, M., Callister, R. R., & Gray, B. 2009. The Influence of Anger Expressions on Perceived Outcomes in Organizations. Negotiations and Conflict Management Research 2 (3):236-262