The Constitution of the United States provides the understanding of who should pay for rangeland riparian reform in its discussion of private property rights. The economic theory used for Western rangeland management has used mechanistic models but should begin using an ecosystem model, where the assumptions do not isolate the model. The use of an ecosystem model would tie the right to act with the responsibility of the action's outcome. Management agencies use the mechanistic model to describe the economics behind current management and the current grazing-fee structure. If permits for all uses were issued in a market, the highest good for each area would be realized. Any use (consumptive or nonconsumptive) would have a protective covenant requiring the permit holder to maintain the riparian areas (and surrounding uplands) regardless of their use. This covenant would provide the incentive needed to maintain riparian areas and the associated uplands.
Baden, John A.
"Riparian reform: who pays,"
Natural Resources and Environmental Issues: Vol. 1
, Article 10.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nrei/vol1/iss1/10