Roberts argues that in order to implement ecosystem management, resource management must switch its ecological perspective from an individual-and population-based focus to ecosystem-and landscape-based ecology; from an "object" (form) to "context" (function) approach; and adopt a multi-scalar modeling approach. A major role for science in EM is to predict ecosystem behavior under alternative management strategies. Wilcox, Risbrudt, Thomas, and Kessler all emphasized the critical role of a higher level of science, although Daniels pointed out that there is a risk of creating a politics of expertise. Thus participating scientists have a strong responsibility to communicate their knowledge to the public in understandable ways.
Adair, William A.; Branson, David H.; Casapulla, Sharon L.; and Reynolds, Michael C.
"Role of science in ecosystem management,"
Natural Resources and Environmental Issues: Vol. 5
, Article 20.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nrei/vol5/iss1/20