Physical Review B
We have studied the ultrafast optical response of native-oxide terminated Si(001) with pump-probe reflectivity using 800 nm, 28 fs pulses at an excitation density of (5.5±0.3)×1018cm-3. Time-dependent reflectivity changes comprise third-order-response coherent-transient variations arising from anisotropic state filling and linear-response variations arising from excited free carriers, state filling, and lattice heating. A time constant of 32±5fs associated with momentum relaxation is extracted from the coherent-transient variations. The state-filling and free-carrier responses are sensitive to carrier temperature, allowing an electron-phonon energy relaxation time of 260±30fs to be measured. The recovery of the reflectivity signal back towards its initial value is largely governed surface recombination: a surface recombination velocity of (3±1)×104cm s-1 is deduced for native-oxide terminated Si(001).
"Femtosecond Pump-Probe Reflectivity Study of Silicon Carrier Dynamics," A. J. Sabbah and D. M. Riffe, Phys. Rev. B 66, 165217 (2002).