Physical Review E
American Physical Society
An inhomogeneous magnetic field exerts a magnetic body force on magnetically permeable fluids. A recent experiment [D. Braithwaite, E. Beaugnon, and R. Tournier, Nature (London) 354, 134 (1991)] demonstrates that this force can be used to compensate for gravity and to control convection in a paramagnetic solution of gadolinium nitrate. We provide the theory of magnetically controlled convection in a horizontal paramagnetic fluid layer heated from either above or below. Our theoretical predictions agree with the experiments.
“Magnetic control of convection in nonconducting paramagnetic fluids,” J. Huang, B. F. Edwards, and D. D. Gray, Phys. Rev. E Rapid Communication, 57, R29 (1998) .