Agricultural Air Quality, Washington, DC
The contribution of agricultural emissions of primary (direct) and secondary (precursor) pollutants to air quality is rapidly being recognized as an important fraction of local and regional air pollution budgets. However, a significant uncertainty still exists in the magnitude and rate of these types of emissions, especially under “in field” conditions common within the central and western United States. Described herein are the results of a study conducted at a deep-pit swine production facility in central Iowa. The facility consisted of three separate, parallel barns, each housing around 1,250 pigs with an average weight of approximately 90 pounds per animal. The area around the facility was topographically flat and surrounded by soybean and cornfields. A number of portable PM10/PM2.5 (AirMetrics MiniVol) samplers and passive NH3 (Ogawa Model 3300) samplers were arrayed vertically and horizontally around the three-barn production facility, and data were collected on a daily-averaged basis for approximately three weeks in August and September of 2005. Additionally, a monitoring station was established approximately 40 m to the north of the nearest barn to record the typical suite of meteorological parameters (wind speed, direction, temperature, etc.) for determination of near-source atmospheric advection and dispersion. The AirMetrics samplers were operated with PM2.5 impactor separation heads for approximately the first half of the field study and were then switched to the PM10 heads for the remaining portion of the study. Each AirMetrics sampler was fitted with a conditioned, preweighed Teflon filter and operated at approximately five liters per minute for a time-controlled 23-hour period. Following sampling, the filters were recovered, conditioned, and reweighed at USU’s Utah Water Research Laboratory (UWRL) in Logan, UT for filter catch and ultimate determination of each location’s PM2.5/PM10 mass concentration. The Ogawa passive samplers were co-located and operated for the same time periods with the pre-treated (acid-coated) collection pads recovered after the same 23-hr period and stored appropriately until the final analysis for NH3 concentrations could be performed via ion chromatography at the UWRL facility. Emission estimates were derived via the comparisons of the measured particulate and NH3 concentrations at each sampling location with the concentrations for each receptor (sample) point found via application of the EPA-recommended ISCST3 air dispersion model (Lakes Environmental Software). The comparison of the measured and model predicted NH3 concentrations resulted in a derived NH3 emission rate of 17.22 ± 7.2 g/pig/day. This value is slightly more than two times greater than referenced emission rates; however, the two emission rates are within statistical uncertainty of each other. The analyses for the particulate emissions are as yet incomplete; however, preliminary calculations show PM10 and PM2.5 emission rates of 0.55 and 0.14 g/pig/day, respectively.
Martin, Randal S.; Doshi, Vishal; and Moore, Kori, "Determination of Particle (PM10 and PM2.5) and Gas-Phase Ammonia (NH3) Emissions from a Deep-Pit Swine Operation Using Arrayed Field Measurements and Inverse Gaussian Plume Modeling" (2006). Space Dynamics Lab Publications. Paper 87.