Physics of Plasmas
Ion parallel closures are obtained for arbitrary atomic weights and charge numbers. For arbitrary collisionality, the heat flow and viscosity are expressed as kernel-weighted integrals of the temperature and flow-velocity gradients. Simple, fitted kernel functions are obtained from the 1600 parallel moment solution and the asymptotic behavior in the collisionless limit. The fitted kernel parameters are tabulated for various temperature ratios of ions to electrons. The closures can be used conveniently without solving the kinetic equation or higher order moment equations in closing ion fluid equations.
Ji, Jeong-Young; Lee, Hankyu Q.; and Held, Eric D., "Ion parallel closures" (2017). Publications. Paper 22.