Aspen Bibliography

Document Type

Contribution to Book


WD Shepperd, D Binkley, DL Bartos, TJ Stohlgren, and LG Eskew compilers

Journal/Book Title/Conference

Sustaining Aspen in Western Landscapes: Symposium Proceedings


Proceedings RMRS-P-18


USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station

First Page


Last Page


Publication Date



Humans assign four types of meanings to aspen landscapes: (1) instrumen- tal meanings dealing with the attainment of a goal—such as production of pulp or provision of recreation opportunities; (2) aesthetic meanings; (3) cultural/symbolic meanings dealing with spiritual and social attachments to landscapes; and (4) individual/expressive meanings derived out of interactions with aspen landscapes at the personal level. The amount of knowledge available for each meaning varies, with most knowledge developed for instrumental meanings. Management of aspen occurs within a dynamic social and political context, with greater emphasis being placed on the latter two meanings, but without the empirical, positivist basis to support actions. Therefore, a change in the planning paradigm used to develop decisions is needed.

I wonder about the trees. Why do we wish to bear Forever the noise of these More than another noise So close to our Dwelling place?

Robert Frost, The Sound of the Trees