Aspen Bibliography


Gap Dynamics in Aspen Stands of the Clay Belt of Northwestern Quebec following a forest tent caterpillar outbreak

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Canadian Journal of Forest Research





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Forest tent caterpillar (FTC; Malacosoma disstria Hübner) outbreaks represent an important natural disturbance in broadleaf-dominated stands; however, their effects on forest gap dynamics are not well understood. To describe such effects on canopy gaps and tree recruitment patterns, we investigated 20 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) dominated stands defoliated severely over 0 to 3 years during the last outbreak (1998–2003) in the northwestern Clay Belt of Quebec. Results show that canopy opening more than tripled (12.3%–43.7%) from 0 to 3 years of severe defoliation, and mean gap size was more than 12 times greater (7.2–87.5 m2) over the same gradient. Regeneration patterns suggest that aspen recruitment is not sufficient to completely restore closed canopies in stands defoliated 0, 1, and 2 years, whereas it should be sufficient in stands defoliated 3 years, where large gaps allow trembling aspen establishment. Our results clearly indicate that FTC outbreaks represent an important factor of gap formation in trembling aspen stands. At the stand level, gaps create uneven stand structures, and at the landscape level, FTC defoliation duration creates a large range of even to uneven stand structures.