Temporal patterns of ungulate herbivory and phenology of aspen regeneration and defense
Ungulate herbivory can create strong top-down effects on forest recruitment, especially after fire. Defense strategies of tree species against ungulate herbivory include escape through vertical growth and resistance through the production of defense compounds. Using a four-way fence design and camera traps we characterized the differential impacts of ungulate herbivores (deer, elk, cattle) on aspen forest recruitment and plant defense responses and how they vary depending on the timing of herbivory. Aspen height growth was greatest between June and August and ungulate use of aspen was highest in July and August.
Rhodes, A. C., R. T. Larsen, J. D. Maxwell, and S. B. S. Clair. 2018. Temporal patterns of ungulate herbivory and phenology of aspen regeneration and defense. Oecologia 188:707-719.