Trophic Cascades and Yellowstone’s Aspen: A Reply to Fleming (2019)
Forest Ecology and Management
Recent correspondence by Fleming (2019) identifies a number of concerns regarding the methods and conclusions used in the Beschta et al. (2018) study of wolves, elk, and aspen in Yellowstone National Park. Herein, we respond to those concerns and assertions. We also provide clarifying and supplemental information regarding two hypotheses: (1) trophic cascades and (2) human shielding. We conclude that there is strong support for both hypotheses.
Beschta, R. L., L. E. Painter, and W. J. Ripple. 2019. Trophic cascades and Yellowstone’s aspen: A reply to Fleming (2019). Forest Ecology and Management 454:117344.