Pattern, Process, and Natural Disturbance in Vegetation
Natural disturbances have been traditionally defined in terms of major catastrophic events originating in the physical environment and, hence, have been regarded as exogenous agents of vegetation change. Problems with this view are: (1) there is a gradient from minor to major events rather than a uniquely definable set of major catastrophes for each kind of disturbance, and (2) some disturbances are initiated or promoted by the biotic component of the system. Floras are rich in disturbance-adapted species. Disturbances have probably exerted selective pressure in the evolution of species strategies. Heathland cyclic successions and gap-phase dynamics in forests have been viewed as endogenous patterns in vegetation. When death in older individuals imposes a rhythm on community reproduction, dynamics may indeed be the result of endogenous factors. However, documented cases of senescence in perennial plants are few and many cyclic successions and cases of gap-phase dynamics are initiated by physical factors. Forest dynamics range from those that are the result of individual tree senescence and fall, through those that are the result of blowdown of small groups of healthy trees, to those that are the result of large wind- storms which level hectares of forest. The effect of wind ranges from simple pruning of dead plant parts to widespread damage of living trees. Wind speed is probably inversely proportional to occurrence frequency. Disturbances vary continuously. There is a gradient from those community dynamics that are initiated by endogenous factors to those initiated by exogenous factors. Evolution has mediated between species and environment; disturbances are often caused by physical factors but the occurrence and outplay of disturbances may be a function of the state of the community as well.
White, P. (1979). Pattern, process, and natural disturbance in vegetation. Botanical Review, 45(3): 229-299.