Entomologist's Monthly Magazine
The abundance of the familiar springtime flowers of Viola suggests that they are of great importance in the production of offspring. However, since the earliest days of pollination studies it has been recorded that insects seldom visited them and that the majority appeared to wither away unfertilized. The precise role of insects in the pollination of these flowers and their contribution to seed set was, therefore, extremely uncertain. The present paper reports part of a wider study which set out to establish whether or not violets were as neglected by insect-visitors as previously supposed. The frequency of visits appeared to be extremely critical for those violet species for which insect pollen vectors represent the only means of out-breeding.
Beattie, A. J., "Insect-Visitors to Three Species of Violet (Viola) in England" (1972). Ba. Paper 11.
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