Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington
The intranidal behavioral patterns used by the solitary bees Anthophora abrupta and A. pilipes villosula (Hymenoptera: Anthophorinae) are described and illus-trated, based on direct observations of mother bees: (1) excavating their nests; (2) con-structing brood cells and lining them with fatty, waterproof Dufour's gland secretion; (3) provisioning their brood cells with nectar, pollen and Dufour's gland secretion; (4) churning the provisions; (5) ovipositing; (6) sealing brood cells. These behaviors are compared with observed intranidal behaviors in the Halictidae and Colletidae. The consumption of energy-rich, fatty Dufour's gland secretion by larvae is among several unusual features of these intriguing, little-studied, specialized bees.
Batra, Suzanne W. Tubby and Norden, B. Ball, "Fatty Food for Their Brood: How Anthophora Bees Make and Provision Their Cells (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)" (1996). Ba. Paper 175.
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