Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society
The introduced European hornet, Vespa crabro germana Christ produces four probable pheromones: an aggregation pheromone from female feces, a defensive pheromone in venom, a cephalic male territory marking pheromone, and a contact pheromone on thoraces of attractive queens that elicits copulatory behavior in males. Details of mating behavior, associates and damage to trees and shrubs are included, with suggestions for use of attractant pheromone in traps for hornet control.
Batra, Suzanne W.T., "Sexual Behavior and Pheromones of the European Hornet, Vespa crabro germana (Hymenoptera: vespidae)" (1980). Ba. Paper 181.
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