Stress in honey bees is poorly defined and poorly understood and is just now being discussed in relation to diseases (Homitzky 1990) and as a consequence of their domestication by man (Erickson 1990). The occurrence of chalkbrood disease, caused by Ascosphaera apis, has been variable and unpredictable but is reported to be more prevalent in honey bee colonies that have incurred some form of stress, be it physiological or environmental (Gilliam 1978, Heath 1982, Milne 1983). Many factors have been suggested as causes of stress such as: excessive moisture, weak colonies, colonies with other diseases, genetic factors, excessive colony manipulation, poor foraging conditions, inadequate nutrition, etc. (Gilliam 1990).
Befus-Nogel, J.; Nelson, D. L.; and Lefkovitch, L. P., "Observations on the effect of management procedures on chalkboard levels in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies" (1992). Ba. Paper 34.
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