Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society
Males of 12 species of bees in both tribes of Halictinae (Halictidae) lived up to 62 days in captivity, "patrolled" when 3 to 62 days old, and mated when 3 to 18 days old. Patrolling by male bees is defined as the repeated flying of non-feeding males among landmarks which may be rendezvous places (locations where males are likely to find females); these males usually confine patrolling to particular topographical areas. In nature patrolling halictine males fly in zig-zag paths at nesting sites and around plants and in addition to conspecific females, they are attracted to various female-sized objects. In the laboratory these males exhibit non-sequential patrolling, flying among landmarks in no particular order, and they commonly add and delete landmarks from patrolled areas. Males of Augochlora pura and Agapostemon splendens exhibit topographical orientation in that they search for landmarks removed from their patrolled areas. When alighted, halictine males frequently groom, feed, "lingualate" nectar, and rotate their bodies. They sleep solitarily or gregariously, depending on the species.
Barrows, Edward M., "Mating Behavior in Halictine Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae): I, Patrolling and Age-specific Behavior in Males" (1976). Ba. Paper 58.
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