The familiar sight of flowers in a sunny meadow beset by a profusion of insect-visitors sharply contrasts with that of flowers inhabiting a quiet forest, apparently unvisited by flower-loving insects. Yet many plant species bear entomophilous flowers in deep shade beneath trees where there appears to be an extreme paucity of anthophilous insects. Several authors have commented upon the importance of sunlight to insect visits with the observation that shade inhibits many flower visitors (Perkins, 1919; Linsley, 1958; Free, 1960) while others will not penetrate the comparative gloom of the interior of a wood or forest (Kerner and Oliver, 1895). The presentation of entomophilous flowers by shade-loving species with such an apparently meagre chance of insect visits appeared anomalous, and worth investigation.
Beattie, Andrew J., "Itinerant Pollinators in a Forest" (1972). Ba. Paper 7.
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