Document Type

Article

Journal/Book Title/Conference

Annals of the Entomological Society of America

Volume

55

Issue

4

Publication Date

7-1-1962

First Page

448

Last Page

455

Abstract

When the transfer of entomophagous insects can be accomplished by using adults, most of the danger of including undesirable hyperparasitic species is avoided. However, in order to take full advantage of this relatively safe method of transferring natural enemies to new areas, shipping methods must be developed which are greatly improved over those we now in use. To this end an examination was made of the extreme conditions likely to be encountered during air-mail transit and of the critical sustenance, temperature, humidity, and confinement conditions which certain delicate adult entomophagous species could endure. Using these data as guides to the degree of protection and sustenance required for the safe transport of parasite and predator adults, various shipping techniques were devised and tested under both simulated and actual shipment conditions. A shipping procedure was developed that provided entomophagous insect adults with optimum protection and sustenance during air-mail transport. The insects were shipped in ventilated, honey-striped vials placed inside sealed vacuum bottles that contained honey as a humidity regulator. The relative humidity inside the sealed vacuum bottles was regulated at 59%±4% throughout temperature changes of 40° to 100° F. by the honey.

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