Mycopathologia et Mycologia applicata
Fungi including yeasts are common in the honey stomachs and provisions of diverse bees. They may be parasites, commensals or mutualistic. Yeasts, singly or in association with bacteria, are pioneer colonizers during a microbial succession in larval cells of many subterranean bees. They are followed by fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Emericellopsis, Sartorya, Pseudoarachniotus, Gymnoascus, Carpenteles and Fusarium. Aspergillus flavus and Saccharomyces spp. are pathogenic to many species of bees, and fungi are the main cause of declining alkali bee populations. There are 124 species of fungi, including 36 new records, associated with Apoidea; 49 species are associated with alkali bees.
Batra, Lekh R.; Batra, Suzanne W. T.; and Bohart, G. E., "The Mycoflora of Domesticated and Wild Bees (Apoidea)" (1973). Ba. Paper 86.
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