J. theor. Biol.
The role of subfertility in the evolution of eusociality in Hymenoptera was examined using deterministic computer simulations of two models of facultative altruism, in which only subfertile females become altruists. The altruism allele was dominant. If altruism is not facultative, then altruism is selected against under the conditions modelled unless altruists have better brood-rearing ability than non-altruists.
Craig, Robin, "Subfertility and the Evolution of Eusociality by Kin Selection" (1983). Co. Paper 156.
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