Production in Vitro of Appressoria by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae
Germination on complex media induced conidia of the entomopathogenMetarhizium anisopliae to produce infection structures (appressoria and penetration hyphae) when the germ tube contacted a hard surface. The morphology of the infection structures and their rate of formation are very similar to those observed for blowfly cuticle. Differentiation frequencies were greater (more than 70% as compared with less than 40%) on hydrophobic surfaces [Teflon, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polypropylene, polyester (GelBond), aluminum foil] than on hydrophilic surfaces (agarose-coated polyester and cellophane). Differentiation frequencies were similar on both positively and negatively charged surfaces. Differentiationin vitro was stimulated by low levels of complex nitrogenous nutrients. Analysis of one- or multicomponent media suggested that amino acids and the lipid component of epicuticle act in combination with the hydrophobic cuticle surface to stimulate differentiation during pathogenesis. Thigmotropic and chemical stimuli for production of appressoria appear to be translated primarily during the second round of nuclear division because inhibitors of DNA and RNA synthesis do not prevent germination but block differentiation if applied before the second nuclear division. Inhibition of protein synthesis blocked both germination and differentiation.
St. Leger, R.J., T.M. Butt, M.S. Goettel, R.C. Staples and D.W. Roberts. 1989. Production in vitro of appressoria by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Experimental Mycology 13: 274-288.