Title

Regulating Waste Discharge With Fuzzy Effluent Limitations For Toxic Pollutants

Document Type

Article

Journal/Book Title/Conference

Water Environment Research

Volume

79

Issue

4

Publisher

Water Environment Federation

Publication Date

4-1-2007

First Page

414

Last Page

420

Abstract

Many traditional water quality standards are based on extreme percentiles; often, there is the risk of making wrong decisions with these standards because of high estimation uncertainty. Standards expressed as fuzzy intervals in the form of [trigger, enforcement limitation] make it possible to control the risks for the discharger and the consumer simul taneously. With fuzzy interval compliance, corrective action is initiated when the trigger is exceeded; noncompliance is declared when the en forcement limitation is exceeded. Fuzzy intervals would digest the risks that are inherent when a single enforcement limitation is used to determine compliance; the risks can be further lowered when the fuzzy intervals are based on less extreme percentiles. This paper proposes several alternatives to using a single extreme percentile standard for regulating water quality or waste discharge. A case study using municipal effluent water quality data was included that suggests methods to determine compliance with fuzzy interval standards.

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