Regulating Waste Discharge With Fuzzy Effluent Limitations For Toxic Pollutants
Water Environment Research
Water Environment Federation
Many traditional water quality standards are based on extreme percentiles; often, there is the risk of making wrong decisions with these standards because of high estimation uncertainty. Standards expressed as fuzzy intervals in the form of [trigger, enforcement limitation] make it possible to control the risks for the discharger and the consumer simul taneously. With fuzzy interval compliance, corrective action is initiated when the trigger is exceeded; noncompliance is declared when the en forcement limitation is exceeded. Fuzzy intervals would digest the risks that are inherent when a single enforcement limitation is used to determine compliance; the risks can be further lowered when the fuzzy intervals are based on less extreme percentiles. This paper proposes several alternatives to using a single extreme percentile standard for regulating water quality or waste discharge. A case study using municipal effluent water quality data was included that suggests methods to determine compliance with fuzzy interval standards.
Yin, Tong, David King Stevens. 2007. Regulating Waste Discharge With Fuzzy Effluent Limitations For Toxic Pollutants. Water Environ. Res., 79(2007).