Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

Journal of Applied Remote Sensing





Publication Date



Particulate emissions from agricultural sources vary from dust created by operations and animal movement to the fine secondary particulates generated from ammonia and other emitted gases. The development of reliable facility emission data using point sampling methods designed to characterize regional, well-mixed aerosols are challenged by changing wind directions, disrupted flow fields caused by structures, varied surface temperatures, and the episodic nature of the sources found at these facilities. We describe a three-wavelength lidar-based method, which, when added to a standard point sampler array, provides unambiguous measurement and characterization of the particulate emissions from agricultural production operations in near real time. Point-sampled data are used to provide the aerosol characterization needed for the particle concentration and size fraction calibration, while the lidar provides 3D mapping of particulate concentrations entering, around, and leaving the facility. Differences between downwind and upwind measurements provide an integrated aerosol concentration profile, which, when multiplied by the wind speed profile, produces the facility source flux. This approach assumes only conservation of mass, eliminating reliance on boundary layer theory. We describe the method, examine measurement error, and demonstrate the approach using data collected over a range of agricultural operations, including a swine grow-finish operation, an almond harvest, and a cotton gin emission study.


© 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

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