Cells and Materials


Matrix vesicles are fundamental components of initial mineral formation in endochondral and primary ossification. Regulation of their structure and function is multi-faceted and involves genomic and nongenomic pathways. Their function in mineralization may include matrix maturation and conveying cellular signals to the extracellular matrix as well. Intravesicular hydroxyapatite crystal formation is associated with primary mineralization; subsequent crystal formation, particularly at later stages, appears to be mediated by other mechanisms.