Increased Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Alpine Streams During Annual Snowmelt: Investigating Effects of Sampling Method, Site Characteristics, and Meteorology.
Environmental Science and Technology
American Chemical Society
Silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates were used to measure time-integrated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in alpine streams during annual snowmelt. The three sampling sites were located near a main highway in Arthur's Pass National Park in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. A similar set of PAH congeners, composed of 2-4 rings, were found in silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates. The background PAH concentrations were similar at all sites, implying that proximity to the highway did not affect concentrations. In passive samplers, an increase of PAH concentrations by up to seven times was observed during snowmelt. In macroinvertebrates, the concentration changes were moderate; however, macroinvertebrate sampling did not occur during the main pulse observed in the passive samplers. The extent of vegetation in the catchment appeared to affect the concentration patterns seen at the different stream sites. A strong correlation was found between PAH concentrations in passive samplers and the amount of rainfall in the study area, indicating that the washout of contaminants from snowpack by rainfall was an important process.
Increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in alpine streams during annual snowmelt: Investigating effects of sampling method, site characteristics, and meteorology. (2014) Shaphpoury, P., Hageman, K.J., Matthaei, C.D., Alumbaugh, R.E., Cook, M.E. Environmental Science and Technology 48, 11294-11301.