Small-scale environments and distribution of biological soil crusts
Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management
On a large geographic scale, variability in climate and habitats results in differences in crust-community composition. Within a single region or locality, additional heterogeneity may result from differences in physical parameters such as elevation, soil characteristics, or microclimate gradients. Even at a very small scale of 1 m or 1 cm, patchiness in the distribution of organisms can be considerable. This chapter is devoted to those variations in environmental variables occurring at spatial scales of millimeters to meters.
Garcia-Pichel, F., and Belnap, J., 2003, Small-scale environments and distribution of biological soil crusts, in Belnap, J., and Lange, O., eds., Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 193-201.