DAC '12: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Design Automation Conference
Continuous technology scaling has made aging mechanisms such as Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) and electromigration primary concerns in Network-on-Chip (NoC) designs. In this paper, we model the effects of these aging mechanisms on NoC components such as routers and links using a novel reliability metric called Traffic Threshold per Epoch (TTpE). We observe a critical need of a robust aging-aware routing algorithm that not only reduces power-performance overheads caused due to aging degradation but also minimizes the stress experienced by heavily utilized routers and links. To solve this problem, we propose an aging-aware adaptive routing algorithm and a router microarchitecture that routes the packets along the paths which are both least congested and experience minimum aging stress. After an extensive experimental analysis using real workloads, we observe a 13%, 12.7% average overhead reduction in network latency and Energy-Delay-Product-Per-Flit (EDPPF) and a 10.4% improvement in performance using our aging-aware routing algorithm. © 2012 ACM.
Kshitij Bhardwaj, Koushik Chakraborty, and Sanghamitra Roy, Towards graceful aging degradation in NoCs through an adaptive routing algorithm, IEEE/ACM Design Automation Conference (DAC), pp. 382-39, June 2012, San Francisco, CA.