Scanning Electron Microscopy


Knowledge of X-ray production as a function of depth by electrons (πœ™(𝜚z) curves) is important in quantitative electron probe microanalysis and other electron beam technologies. Extensive measurements of such curves have been made for electron energies between 6 and 30 keV and for many X-ray lines and matrix elements. Two experimental techniques based on measurements on sandwich or wedge shaped specimens have been used.

A number of expressions have been used to model πœ™(𝜚z) curves from a square function through complicated polynomial expressions. Recently, a Gaussian model has been proposed which accurately reflects the shape of the πœ™(𝜚z) curves and which can be linked to theoretical models. Generalizing the equation to the situation of non-normal electron incidence would appear possible.

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