The Laboratoire de Recherche des Musees de France has tested the applicability of the scanning electron microscope with X-ray analysis facilities in the study of ancient gold artifacts and particularly the joining processes. Three types of joining methods are known to have been used in Ancient Times : sintering, brazing with Au-Ag-Cu alloys and copper-salt binding. X-ray distribution maps of selected elements on very small areas show clearly the different processes used in the manufacture of Oriental and Iron-Age artifacts.
Duval, A. R. and Eluere, C.
"Solder Characterization on Ancient Gold Artifacts with the Electron Microprobe,"
Scanning Electron Microscopy: Vol. 1986
, Article 10.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/electron/vol1986/iss4/10