Little is known about in utero urinary bladder embryogenesis and the development of the urothelium of laboratory animals. Previous scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies in rats and mice have indicated that the highly specialized superficial cells of the urothelium complete their differentiation at a very late stage of fetal development or shortly after birth. Limitations in methodology in the past have precluded extensive examination of earlier stages of bladder development. Innovations in preparatory procedures of the bladder of rat fetuses have been developed which make possible detailed scanning and transmission electron microscopic and light microscopic examination of cloaca and urinary bladder as early as day 11 of gestation.
Cano, M.; Johansson, S. L.; Wilson, R. B.; Ellwein, L. B.; Sakata, T.; and Cohen, S. M.
"Preparation Methods for Light Microscopic and Ultrastructural Studies of Fetal Rat Bladder,"
Scanning Electron Microscopy: Vol. 1986
, Article 12.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/electron/vol1986/iss4/12