Scanning Electron Microscopy


Analysis, simulation, and design of electron-beam-deflection systems are reviewed in light of the current state of theoretical understanding. A brief review of the physical principles is followed by a detailed discussion of electrostatic, magnetostatic, mixed-field, traveling-wave, and scan-expansion systems. Each methodology is examined from a triple perspective: calculation of electromagnetic fields, calculation of electron trajectories, and calculation of the ensemble of trajectories forming the beam. Applications discussed include deflectors for television displays, lithography, scanning microscopes, and CRT oscillography. Developments of the last ten years are stressed, thereby supplementing and updating the author's previous review on this subject.

In field calculation, recent developments in the use of numerical methods on computers dominate. These methods include finite-difference, finite-element, and charge-density or integral-equation techniques. In trajectory calculations, increasing use of numerical integration as well as improvements and extensions of the aberration theory are found. In treatment of the beam bundle, the growing sophistication of numerical deflected-beam models has lead to increased use of aberration figures, current-density plots, and phase-space methods.

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