Scanning Electron Microscopy


A scanning electron microscope was equipped with a double tilting stage, driven by stepping motors, to investigate electron channeling patterns (ECPs) and large angle convergent beam patterns (LACBPs) of single crystals. Transmitted electrons may be energy-selected by a magnetic sector-field energy analyzer. The recording of experimental data and the experimental arrangement are controlled by a microprocessor system, including a picture storage unit of 512 x 512 pixels of 16 bit. Recorded patterns can be stored on 1 Megabyte floppies.

A set of useful programs allows one to perform calculations with stored patter ns, e.g., contrast enhancement or -inversion, noise reduction, difference or quotient of two patterns etc. The possibility of background subtraction (e.g., in patterns recorded with characteristic energy loss electrons) allows one to get true K-loss convergent beam patterns. Other recording modes allow one to get two CBPs simultaneously recorded with electrons of different energy losses, to measure angle dependences of energy selected electrons, or to take electron energy loss spectra.

A special processor program generates a theoretically calculated CBP or ECP on the TV screen and prints out a list of all band edges up to a chosen limit of Miller indices (hkl). The program requires the coordinates of two known poles and some crystallographic properties of the investigated material. Thus complete indexing of recorded diffraction patterns is easily possible.

The system has been applied, e.g., to investigate localization effects of electron Bloch-waves in graphite.

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