Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Environment and Society


David F. Balph


Numerous investigators have studied sound communication in animals in recent years. Most of these studies have been on birds, insects, or cetaceans, particularly the dolphin. Most of the studies on terrestrial mammals have been of the natural history type, and the authors have given an orthographic rendition of any sounds produced by that particular species. Few definitive studies have been done. There have been a few attempts to determine cause and function of sounds in mammals (Arvola, lImen, and Koponen, 1962; Bartholomew and Collias, 1962; Rowell and Hinde, 1962; Andrew, 1963).

No quantitative studies on sound communication in Citellus have been made. Balph and Stokes (1963), Burnett (1931), Fitch (1948), Gordon (1943), Linsdale (1946), and Manville (1959) have described the natural history and ecology of various ground squirrels.

The purpose of my study was to catalog the sounds given by the Uinta ground squirrel (Citellus armatus), to determine the cause and function of each sound, and to see how these sounds represent adaptations to life in the animal's habitat.