Date of Award:


Document Type:


Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Foods and Nutrition

Committee Chair(s)

Ethelywn B. Wilcox


Ethelywn B. Wilcox


D. A. Greenwood


James Bennett


Wayne Binns


Carbohydrates have long been a part of animal feeding rations.Grains are included in all animal feeding formulas. The by-products of sugar beets have been used for many years in livestock feeding (Kutish 1950b). The use of molasses in commercial feed mixed in 1899 made possible its extended use in animal feeding practices (Hall 1950).

Protein feeds for cattle are relatively high in price and not available in adequate supply. With these fats in mind Culbertson of Iowa State College set up experiments in 1950 to find out whether part or all of the protein supplement could be replaced with non-protein nitrogen feed in a good steer fattening ratio. The sugar in cane molasses is utilized more readily by animals than starch in corn grain, so molasses was fed to steers in the non-protein nitrogen feed. The growth made by the steers fed on these rations was on a par with the control group and use of these non-protein feeds in rations is likely to be of economical and practical importance. These findings have been verified by feeding large numbers of cattle (Bode 1951).

Direct molasses usage on farms may be divided into two types: direct use as feed; and use as a preservative in making grass silage. At present the first type is more important, the second being used throughout the dairy belt (Kutsh 1950a; Aries and Copulsky 1949).

Regarding amounts of molasses which may be fed, the Bureau of Animal Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture (Kutish 1950a) reports:

At various times and under different circumstances, molasses products are fed to nearly all classes of animals. Larger proportionate amounts are generally fed to beef cattle than to poultry and swine. Generous amounts can be fed to horses, mules, sheep and goats. We have ordinarily advised use of 5 per cent of this feed. In the case of swine, 10 per cent can be used although we have fed 20 per cent in test rations. For cattle, a third or more of the corn or other grain can be replaced with molasses. Occasionally much larger amounts are used.

Feeding carbohydrates in the form of sucrose for short periods before slaughtering improved the keeping quality, flavor and texture of pork as noted by Gibbons and Rose (1950) and Madsen (1950). These investigators indicated a need for further studies on swine and detailed studies on beef.

The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of feeding sucrose to beef and swine prior to slaughter, on the percentage of carbohydrate, pH, color, texture, and flavor of muscle and liver.