Date of Award:

1953

Document Type:

Thesis

Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)

Department:

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences

Abstract

Swiss cheese has been rightly called "king of the cheeses." It has been prized the world over for its stately appearance and sweet "hazelnut" flavor. In grading Swiss cheese, these two things,appearance and flavor, are important considerations in determining the cheese score. Appearance is judges according to the number, type, and size of eyes present in the cheese, with color and body and texture also considered. Flavor is judges according to the degree of sweetness and the amount and kinds of off flavors present.

In the past, there has been considerable variation in the quality of the Swiss cheese produces. Causes of this variation were little understood, since wide ranges in grades of cheese were obtained from seemingly similar milk and manufacturing precedures. Technique has been greatly improved by research conducted in both private industry and experiment stations. Much has been done to produce beneficial effects in the cheese, and to reduce detrimental effects.

One question, still debated, is the amount of eye forming bacteria necessary to produce the best eye formation. Propionibacterium shermanii, by its production of carbon dioxide, is thought to be the most important bacteria in producing the eyes. Some Swiss cheese makers see no necessity in adding prepared culture of E. shermanii to their milk. They allow the milk to become "seeded" from organisms already present in the vets and on the equipment. Other cheese makers add small amounts of prepared cultures of T. shermanii, whil still others add rather large quantities. Procedure varies from plant to plant.

Propionic acid and acetic acid are also produced in the life processes of P. shermanii. These two acids are important factors in the development of flavor in Swiss cheese. Therefore, a change in the amount of P. shermanii in the Swiss cheese, and the subsequent effect on eye formation and flavor.

It is the purpose of this experiment to determine the general effects that variations in the size of the inoculation of P. shermanii will produce on eye formation and flavor development. The effects, if any, of the three milk treatments mentioned above will also be noted.

Comments

Swiss cheese has been rightly called "king of the cheeses." It has been prized the world over for its stately appearance and sweet "hazelnut" flavor. In grading Swiss cheese, these two things,appearance and flavor, are important considerations in determining the cheese score. Appearance is judges according to the number, type, and size of eyes present in the cheese, with color and body and texture also considered. Flavor is judges according to the degree of sweetness and the amount and kinds of off flavors present.

In the past, there has been considerable variation in the quality of the Swiss cheese produces. Causes of this variation were little understood, since wide ranges in grades of cheese were obtained from seemingly similar milk and manufacturing precedures. Technique has been greatly improved by research conducted in both private industry and experiment stations. Much has been done to produce beneficial effects in the cheese, and to reduce detrimental effects.

One question, still debated, is the amount of eye forming bacteria necessary to produce the best eye formation. Propionibacterium shermanii, by its production of carbon dioxide, is thought to be the most important bacteria in producing the eyes. Some Swiss cheese makers see no necessity in adding prepared culture of E. shermanii to their milk. They allow the milk to become "seeded" from organisms already present in the vets and on the equipment. Other cheese makers add small amounts of prepared cultures of T. shermanii, whil still others add rather large quantities. Procedure varies from plant to plant.

Propionic acid and acetic acid are also produced in the life processes of P. shermanii. These two acids are important factors in the development of flavor in Swiss cheese. Therefore, a change in the amount of P. shermanii in the Swiss cheese, and the subsequent effect on eye formation and flavor.

It is the purpose of this experiment to determine the general effects that variations in the size of the inoculation of P. shermanii will produce on eye formation and flavor development. The effects, if any, of the three milk treatments mentioned above will also be noted.

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