Date of Award:

1964

Document Type:

Thesis

Degree Name:

Master of Science (MS)

Department:

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences

Department name when degree awarded

Food and Nutrition

Abstract

Due to the increasing popularity of outdoor cooking of meat, there is interest in determining the chemical and physical changes that occur during the charcoal broiling process. Of particular interest is the effect of these changes upon the quality of the broiled meat. Although broiling is not a new method of cooking meat, a review of the literature revealed few reports of scientific work on broiled meats. Some work has been done on the effect of different cooking methods on weight losses, tenderness, palatability, thiamine, protein content, but no reports were found relating surface temperature and cooking time to rate of heat transfer and to final internal temperature. Little research has been done in this area because there has been no means available for measuring surface temperature during broiling.

The investigation and results reported in this study were made possible by the development of an experimental model of a coil type thermometer, developed by the Taylor Instrument Company, and an Electronic Universal Nine Point Strip Chart Recorder were used to record temperatures in this study. The thermometer determined the surface temperature of the grill and thermocouples attached to the meat and connected tot he recorder determined the top, internal, and bottom temperatures of the samples.

This preliminary study was conducted on beef using charcoal as the source of heat, since the heat from the charcoal could be controlled at an approximately constant temperature. Studies by Salvosa (1963) and Irvine (1963) showed the interrelationships of surface temperature to cooking time and degree of doneness. One grade (Good) Sirloin, two grades (Good and Choice) Porterhouse steaks and ground beef patties were broiled in this study. The steaks were cut in two thicknesses, 1 and 1/12 inches, and were broiled at three different cooking temperatures (400o, 350o, and 300o Fahrenheit) to three degrees of doneness.

Statistical analysis using these variables produced a change of only two minutes in predicted cooking time.

The current study, a continuation of the previous studies, was made to determine the relationships of surface temperature, cooking temperature, cooking time, and degree of doneness, to moisture, protein, and fat content of broiled beef. This study also included a compilation of thiamine and soluble protein results of the previous studies (Salvosa, 1963; and Irvine, 1963).

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